1840 for the proprietor
Longman, Orme, Brown, Greene, and Longmans.
Appleton and Co.,
New York; and Fisher and Co. Paris
Service at St George's Chapel
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table - Origin of Modern
Chivalry - Ashmole's Eulogium of Knighthood - Connexion of the
subject with the History of Windsor Castle - Derivation of the
Name - William the Norman - The Pawnbroker and the Crusader.
Judgment upon the Conqueror's family - Completion of the First
Castle - Removal from Old to New Windsor - Royal Eloquence -
The bereft Father - "He never smiled again" - Maimers
of the Time - Private Wars - General Confusion.
The Unnatural Family - The Governor of the Castle - Royal penitence
- William of Scotland imprisoned in Windsor Castle - Policy of
Henry II - Death of Prince Henry - New Rebellions of the UnnaturaI
Family - Despair and Death of the Father.
Richard Coeur de Lion - Order of the Garter - Legend of the Leather
Thong - The Two Rival Bishops - A New Governor of the Castle
- Prince John - Horrible Atrocity - Fighting Bishops.
King John - Horrible Barbarity - Henry III - Robbery of the City
of London - Refinement of Cruelty - Anecdotes - Original Form
of the Castle - Fortifications - Description of the Different
Stages - Grand Entrance - Anglo-Normans and Anglo-Saxons.
Progress of Civilization - Windsor Castle assumes a New form
- Zeal of Edward III - Improvement of Workmen - Royal Triumph
over Death - Institution of the Order of the Garter - Heathen
Gods and Christian Saints - King Edward's Round Table - Tradition
of the Garter - The Fair Maid of Kent - Unsuccessful Wooing of
Edward - The Queen's Garter.
Love and Gallantry of Chivalry - The Cours d'Amour - Love Cases
for the Casuists - Officers of the Courts of Love - Equality
of the Knights of the Garter - Mottos and Devices - Patrons of
the Garter - Legend of St. George - Statutes of the Order of
the Garter - The Points of Reproach.
Habits and Ensigns of the Order of the Garter - The Garter
The Mantle - The Surcoat - The Hood - The Collar - The George
- The Lesser George - Procession of the Knights Elect to Windsor
- The Offering - Investiture with the Robe - Girding with the
Sword - The Oath - Investiture with the Other Insignia - Grand
Festival of the Order - Ceremony of the Degradation of a Knight-Companion.
Origin of the Poor Knights of Windsor - Their duty - Statutes
of the Poor Knights - Annual allowance - Saint George's Chapel.
French fashions - The captives of Windsor - Richard II - Anne
of Bohemia - Tournament - Importance attached to the order of
the Garter - Famous appeal of high treason - The Citizens of
London - Henry IV - Plot against the usurper's life - Grotesque
fashions of the age - The philosopher's stone.
James I of Scotland a captive at Windsor - Heroic fidelity -
Henry V - The veritable heart of St. George - Chartism of the
fifteenth century - Edward IV or the royal rake - The two kings
- Richard III - Henry VII - Royal castaways at Windsor.
The Defender of the Faith - The Priest and the Butcher - The
Duke of Shoreditch - Fall of the price of relics - Fashion -
Diary of Edward VI - Philip and Mary - Hentzner's Description
of Windsor Castle.
Queen Elizabeth - Her celebrated Terrace - Her literary occupations
at Windsor - Her influence on literature and fashion - Merry
Wives of Windsor - Herne the Hunter - Personal vanity of Elizabeth
- Silk stockings - Clear-starching - Baths of wine and milk -
Edict against ugly portraits of the Queen - Descriptions of Elizabeth
by different authorities - A beau of her time - Character of
the English by a foreigner.
James I - Visit of the King of Denmark - The goodly ancient gentlemen
- Institution of the order of Baronets - Its origin - Achmole's
account of the institution - Controversy respecting the character
of James - Mr. D'Israeli's defence - Witches.
Charles I - Royal romance - Man's love and woman's love - The
Infanta of Spain and Henrietta of France - Conflict of the Gracesayers
- Windsor the prison of its master - Weekly newspapers of the
time - The castle repaired and embellished by Charles II - The
new Queen and her train of uglinesses - Barbara Villiers - The
brutal husband - Cannibal loyalists - Evelyn's account of Windsor
- James II.
Changes in taste - Specimen of bad taste - Round Tower - Sir
J. Wyatville - External appearance of the castle - Principal
gateway Upper ward - Entrance to the state apartments - Queen's
Ball Room - Introduction of Verrio to Windsor - Anecdotes - Grinling
Gibbons - Pictures in the Queen's Ball Room - Countess of Carlisle
Duchess of Richmond - Countess of Dorset - Lady Venetia Digby
- Karew and Killigrew - Henrietta Marie - Charles I.
The Queen's Drawing Room - Queen's Closet - Duke of Hamilton
- King's Closet - The blacksmith painter - Anecdote of the princess
Charlotte - Emperor Charles V - Steenwyck's prison scene - King's
Council Room - Duke of Marlborough - Luther - Prince Rupert.
King's Drawing-room - Pictures by Rubens - The Vestibule - Battle
of Poictiers - Queen Philippa - Throne Room - Picture of the
installation of the Knights of the Garter - Ball-room - Waterloo
Gallery - St. George's Hall - Guard Chamber - Ancient Arms and
engines of war - Queen's Presence Chamber - Queen's Audience
English rabble - Terra incognita of the palace - Grand Vestibule
and Staircase - Dining-room - Stupendous toy - Saloons - Library
- Grand Corridor - Sir Jeffry Wyatville.
King Charles's Beauties - Mrs. Middleton - Miss Warminster -
Miss Hamilton - Duchess of Richmond - Duchess of Cleveland -
Lady Ossory - Lady Denham - Lady Whitmore - Lady Northumberland
- Countess of Sunderland - Duchess of Somerset - Lady Byron -
Lady Rochester - Mrs. Lawson - Queen Catherine - Anne Hyde -
Duchess of Portsmouth.
The Round Tower - View from the summit - History of the tower
- The imprisoned poet - Lord Surrey's lament at Windsor - Geraldine
- Lower ward of the castle - Cloisters - Inscriptions - Royal
tombhouse - Its modern inhabitants.
Royal Chapel of St. George - Interior - Choir - West window -
Screen - Stalls of the Knights - Monuments - Cenotaph of the
The German prince's opinion of Windsor - Eton College - Little
Park - Frogmore - Misconceptions in taste - The Long Walk - Statue
of George III - Great Park - Virginia Water - The Cascade - Ruins
- Frigates of the Lake - Fishing Temple - Belvidere Tower - Bridges
- Return to Windsor - Royal Lodge - Cumberland Lodge - Eclipse
- Queen Victoria.
of Engravings and Engravers
The Queen On
Horseback (Frontispiece) by F. Heath
Eagle Tower (Vignette)
From The Road Between Datchett And Eton by Allen
From The Home Park by Smith
Interior of St.
George's Hall by Wallis
Interior of St.
George's Chapel by Mottram
From The Clewer Meadow by Allen
From The Eton Playing Fields by Willmore
From The Long Walk by Varrall
by Le Keux
From The Great Park by Wallis
Eton, From The
Windsor Castle Terrace by Prior
Eton, From The
Playing-Fields by Willmore
Water by Watkins
Virginia Water by Wallis
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£1.95 (US $3.99)
Habits and Ensigns
of the Order of the Garter
(From Chapter VIII)
THE habit and ensigns of the order of the
garter are in six parts; the four first, viz., the garter, mantle,
surcoat, and hood, assigned to the knights' companies by the
founder; and the two last, the George and collar, by Henry VIII.
The materials of the original garter are not known, but those
sent to sovereign princes by Philip and Mary, and later sovereigns,
were richly wrought with gold and precious stones. That of Gustavus
Adolphus, contained four hundred and eleven diamonds, the motto
being traced in small diamonds; such likewise was the case with
the garter worn by Charles I, at his execution. This latter,
subsequently to the tragedy, was sold to Ireton, lord mayor of
London; but after the restoration, recovered by the crown by
a process at law.
The mantle was originally of woollen cloth, and probably continued
so till the reign of Henry VI, when velvet first appears. The
colour was originally blue, but seems to have been changed at
the fancy of different sovereigns.
The surcoat was a tunic, fastened round the
body with a girdle, and reaching a little below the knee.
The hood, intended at first to defend the head
and shoulders from the weather, was still retained, hanging upon
the back, after a cap or hat came to be worn. The hood was of
the same stuff as the surcoat; the hat of black velvet, adorned
with white feathers. "This custom of wearing caps and feathers,"
says Ashmole, "at the grand solemnities of the order, had
for some time been omitted; and, therefore, in a chapter held
the 13th of April, anno 10, Jac. I, this commendable custom was
reestablished." To these may be added the cross and star.
The collar was ordered to contain thirty ounces
of gold, troy weight, neither more nor less; but a slight difference
was made in the case of some of the later sovereigns. It is expressly
prohibited by the laws of the order that the collar should be
ornamented with precious stones. Not so the George, a figure
hanging from the middle of the collar, representing Saint George
in his conflict with the dragon, which is allowed to be adorned
in as costly a manner as the owner chooses. The lesser George
was a model of the saint, worn on the breast within the ennobled
garter, to distinguish the knights-companions from other gentlemen,
who wore gold chains, the ordinary ensigns of knighthood. This
George was suspended round the neck by a blue ribbon. We have
now to describe, as briefly as may be, from the verbose Ashmole,
the ceremonies of installation.
The knights elect proceeded
from London to their installation at Windsor, in a solemn and
stately cavalcade, which was performed on horse-back, with the
greatest grandeur, whether we refer to the number of their honourable
friends, who, on gallant coursers, rode along with them, or the
multitude of their own attendants, well mounted, the magnificence
of whose apparel, jewels, gold chains, rich embroideries, and
plumes of feathers, of their lord's colours, dazzled the eyes
of the spectators.
Corresponding to this pompous show was the
feast, which contained in it all manner of stateliness and plenty,
as well of provision, as other incidents that might increase
its glory, in which the elect knights, who kept it at their own
expense, strove not only to out-vie their predecessors, but to
excel one another, so that all ambassadors and strangers esteemed
it one of the goodliest and noblest sights that were to be seen
But to make the splendour of the cavalcade
no less conspicuous to the city of London, than to the town and
castle of Windsor, the knights elect took up their lodgings,
sometimes in the Strand, sometimes in Salisbury Court, in Holborn,
or within the city; and took care to pass through some great
thoroughfares, that the people might the better see the show.
King James I, observing the excesses the elect
knights ran into upon this occasion, and willing to check the
growing inconveniences, at the installation of Francis, Earl
of Rutland, Sir George Villars, knight (afterwards Duke of Buckingham),
and the Viscount Lisle, anno 14 of his reign, forbade livery
coats, for saving charge, and avoiding emulation; and shortly
after, in a chapter at Whitehall, anno 16, with the consent of
the knights-companions then assembled, in order to put some restraint
upon the number of attendants, he decreed that each of the knights-companions
should have fifty persons to attend him to the annual solemnities
of the order, and no more.
The offering of the knights-commissioners, coming to the castle
on the eve of the installation, is founded upon an article of
Edward III, which runs to this effect: that if any of the knights-companions,
being upon a journey, should accidentally pass by Windsor Castle,
he is to turn in thither, in honour of the place, and prepare
himself to enter into the chapel to offer; first putting on his
mantle, without which he must never presume to enter; but upon
emergencies, and allowable causes, he is to be excused. This
offering was made in gold or silver.
The ceremonies of receiving an elect knight
being over, he disrobes himself of his upper garment, then the
surcoat and kirtle is taken from the table, with which he is
invested; and during this ceremony, the following words of admonition,
entered at the end of King Henry VIII's book of English statutes,
are read or spoken.
"Take this robe of purple, to the increase
of your honour, and in token, or sign, of the most honourable
order you have received; wherewith you being defended, may be
bold, not only strong to fight, but also to offer yourself to
shed your blood for Christ's faith, the liberties of the church,
and the just and necessary defence of them that are oppressed
After this, his sword is close girt about him over his surcoat,
by the commissioners, (or the assistants to the lieutenant, or
some of the knights-companions,) and sometimes in the way of
assistance, Garter himself does this service; and as soon as
the ceremony is over, the sovereign, or his lieutenant, proceeds
into the choir, leaving the elect knight behind them.
The knight elect proceeds from the chapter-house along the north
aisle, and enters the west door of the choir in solemn order;
but his place in this procession is changed, for here he is led
between two knights-companions.
Whilst the oath is administering, the elect
knight holds his right hand on the holy evangelists; and when
the register has pronounced the words, he immediately responses,
"I will, so help me God," and then takes of his hand
reverently, kissing the book; and by this ceremony, seals his
obligation to the statutes of this most noble order.
The form of the ancient oath appointed by the
statutes of institution, to be taken by a knight-subject, was
very short, but comprehensive: "That he should well and
faithfully observe, to the utmost of his power, all the statutes
of the order;" till towards the end of King Edward IV's
reign, it was decreed, That all the knights'-companions then
alive, and all such as should afterwards be admitted into the
order, should be obliged to subjoin the words following: "That
they would aid, support, and defend, with all their power, the
royal college of St. George, within the castle of Windsor, as
well in its possessions, as in all other things whatsoever;"
which being drawn in form, was entered in the black book, but
has since received many alterations.
As soon as the knight elect has taken the oath,
he is led to his appointed stall, and placed before it. In the
interim, Garter advancing into the lower row of stalls, to the
place where the elect knight stood when he took the oath, presents
from thence the mantle, collar, and book of statutes, to those
who led him, who invest the knight elect first with the mantle,
by putting it on his shoulders.
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